The most popular way of sustainable development in

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On the road to sustainable development in "green packaging" international trade

I. Introduction

in childhood, your eyes will be tired due to long-term reading. Teachers and parents will warn you to take a rest and look at the "green" outside the window, which can alleviate your eyesight fatigue; The vegetables, fruits and foods we eat every day, if marked with "green food", are pollution-free and pollution-free pure natural food; Today, Beijing's municipal construction is achieving the goal of building a "green garden" within 500 meters, so that citizens can relax, exercise and be healthy; For the 2008 Olympic Games tomorrow, Beijing has put forward the slogan of "Green Olympics". Green has become a popular color in modern times. Green goods and green packaging, such as green refrigerators, environmentally friendly color TVs, and green computers, are constantly emerging, and are welcomed by the majority of consumers. Nowadays, the term "green" is familiar in all walks of life and has become one of the characteristics of the development of the new era. Green design has also become a hot topic in modern design technology and art research. Tracing back to the source of green packaging design and the original ecology, environmental problems have a source of confusion

it is analyzed that the environmental pollution caused by the packaging industry is mainly manifested in the production, storage, consumption and use of packaging and its products, as well as the pollution to the human body and the other end of the ring that can only rotate around the axis of the sample after consumption. Among them, the pollution of packaging waste is the most important, widespread harm and public concern. The United States produces about 150 million tons of municipal waste every year, of which 1/3 is packaging waste. The annual municipal solid waste of European Community countries is about 100 million tons, including more than 80 million tons of packaging waste. Japan's municipal solid waste is about 50million tons, including 21million tons of packaging waste. A large number of pressure testing machines were previously packaging waste of manual hydraulic pressure testing machines, causing serious environmental pollution. At present, the annual output of solid waste in China is 600 million tons, of which 40% can be used, and the rest are difficult to deal with. Among these wastes, packaging wastes account for about 1/3 of the total, causing serious pollution to China's ecological environment. From the above data, the impact of commodity packaging on the environment beyond its functions of protecting commodities, facilitating sales and promoting commodities has been paid more and more attention by environmental protection organizations all over the world

On June 5, 1972, the United Nations held a conference on environment and development in Brazil and issued the Declaration on the human environment. Since then, June 5 has been designated as "World Environment Day", which has triggered a worldwide green packaging revolution

in the past 30 years, green packaging has made rapid progress. In 1975, Germany took the lead in responding to the call of the Declaration on the human environment and launched green packaging - "green dot" packaging logo. Subsequently, the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, the United States, the European Community and other countries and regions have also launched green packaging, setting off a worldwide green boom. At the same time, the governments of the United States, Germany, Britain, France and the Netherlands have formulated packaging laws, requiring manufacturers, importers and retailers to take responsibility for recycling, reusing and remanufacturing packaging materials

In 1992, the United Nations adopted and published Agenda 21. In June, 1993, the international organization for standardization established the environmental protection management committee (iso/tc207) and promulgated the international environmental protection standard (ISO14000) and implemented it on January 1, 1996. On January 1st, 1999, the international green environmental protection mark (including packaging mark) was implemented all over the world, accelerating the process of green packaging. "Green packaging" has laid the road of sustainable development in international trade$ Page break $

II. Green packaging

1. Concept and characteristics of green packaging

green packaging is a new concept in the packaging industry. China's national standard "general principles of green packaging" (Draft for approval) gives the terms and definitions of green packaging, that is, "packaging with safety, economy, applicability and waste disposal and reuse for environmental protection and life safety, rational use of resources." [1]

green packaging is widely recognized for two points: first, it is conducive to resource regeneration; Second, the damage to the ecological environment is minimal. Green packaging refers to the packaging of recyclable or renewable packaging materials and their products that do not pollute the environment and human body. Green packaging has the following characteristics:

(1) the most economical materials, the least waste, and save resources and energy, that is, under the conditions of meeting the functions of protection, convenience, promotion, and providing information, green packaging should be an appropriate packaging with the least materials and civilization

(2) it is easy to recycle and recycle product packaging and its packaging products for many times, or use recycled waste to produce recycled products, incinerate and utilize heat energy, compost and improve soil, so as to achieve the purpose of reuse, which not only does not pollute the environment, but also makes full use of resources

(3) packaging materials can degrade by themselves and the degradation cycle is short. In order not to form permanent waste, non recyclable packaging waste should be able to decompose and decay, so as to improve the soil. There must also be a short degradation cycle to avoid accumulation. At present, all industrial countries in the world attach importance to the development and utilization of biodegradable packaging materials

(4) packaging materials should be non-toxic and harmless to human body and biological system. This mainly requires that packaging materials do not contain toxic elements, halogens, heavy metals, or their content should be controlled below relevant standards

(5) packaging products should not produce environmental pollution in the whole process of their life cycle, that is, packaging products should not produce environmental pollution from raw material collection, material processing, product manufacturing, use, waste recycling, etc. When packaging waste is burned to generate new energy, it will not produce secondary pollution

green packaging is one of the key links of green products. Vigorously developing green products is the basic requirement of the development of commodity economy. Green products cannot be separated from green packaging. Without green packaging, there will be no green products. Green products without green packaging cannot be called green products

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2. Green packaging design

it is the book "design for the real world" published by Victor babanak, an American design theorist, that has a direct impact on the packaging design of the fire stop ring of green 277 UPVC building drainage pipes. The book focuses on the most pressing issues of human needs faced by designers, emphasizing the social and ethical values of designers. Babanak believes that the greatest role of design is not to create commercial value, nor to compete in packaging and style, but an element in the process of appropriate social change. He stressed that the design should seriously consider the use of Limited earth resources and serve the protection of the earth's environment; It is not easy to achieve the balance between life and resource consumption, as well as the balance between short-term economic interests and long-term environmental protection goals. This requires not only consumers to have a conscious awareness of environmental protection, but also the government to promote it from the perspective of laws and regulations

(1) design of green packaging materials

the development of green packaging materials is the key to the final realization of green packaging. Paper, glass, plastic and metal are the four pillars of modern packaging. Among the four packaging materials, paper products have the fastest growth. Among the four packaging materials, paper and plastic are not as easy to break as glass, nor as heavy as iron, and are not easy to carry. Paper and plastic are widely used in daily life. Green packaging materials mainly include the following:

① Lightweight, thin, fluorinated free, high-performance packaging materials partially replace metal packaging materials. The small packaging cans made of them have solid texture, beautiful appearance and small weight, and can replace tinplate cans as packaging containers for coatings, hardware, butter, etc

②. Reusable and recycled packaging materials. The reuse and recycling of packaging materials is the most practical step in the development of green packaging materials at this stage. It is the most active waste recycling method to protect the environment and promote the recycling of packaging materials

③. Edible packaging materials edible packaging materials have developed rapidly in recent years because of their rich and complete raw materials, edible, harmless and even beneficial to human body, and certain strength. Edible packaging materials have been widely used in the packaging of food and drugs. The raw materials of edible packaging materials mainly include starch, protein, plant fiber and other natural substances

④. Degradable packaging material degradable packaging material refers to a kind of plastic whose chemical structure changes in a specific environment that causes performance loss within a specific time. The development of degradable plastic packaging materials and the gradual elimination of non degradable plastic packaging materials are the inevitable trend of the development of packaging industry in the world at present, and are one of the hot spots of material research and development

⑤. The waste of packaging materials such as plastic, glass and metal, which are natural biological packaging materials developed by using natural resources, has become an important factor in polluting the environment, and the production cost is high because LS10 saves the shape source of the mixing chamber of FPL, which is non renewable and consumes a lot of energy. However, the natural biological materials used for packaging, such as paper, wood, bamboo weaving materials, sawdust, hemp cotton fabrics, wickers, reeds, and crop stems, straw, wheat straw, etc., can be easily decomposed in the natural environment, do not pollute the ecological environment, and the resources are renewable and the cost is low

⑥. Vigorously develop paper packaging paper packaging has many advantages, such as relatively rich resources, easy recycling, no pollution. Western developed countries have long used paper packaging to package hamburgers, fast food, beverages, etc., and have the potential to replace plastic flexible packaging. China is also starting to develop fiber film instead of plastic film as agricultural film to avoid pollution to farmland. In the proportion of materials used in packaging products all over the world, the use of paper ranks first. According to statistics, 51% in the United States, 39.6% in Japan and 36.7% in China

(2) principles and contents of green packaging design

Product packaging is an important link in the product life cycle. With the development of industry and the improvement of people's living standards, this link is becoming more and more important for the competition and development of enterprises. Therefore, green packaging design can effectively solve a series of problems brought by packaging. Packaging designers should consider multiple schemes for comparison when designing packaging, and select the optimal design scheme after comprehensive quantitative analysis. Reasonable packaging design should consider the breadth of this life cycle, determine the objectives and research scope, and obtain the correct design scheme after quantitative analysis and comparison of data

①. Research and develop non-toxic, pollution-free, recyclable, renewable or degradable packaging auxiliary materials

②. Study the control technology and alternative technology of harmful components of existing packaging materials, as well as the alternative technology of natural "poor materials"

③. Optimize the packaging structure, reduce the consumption of packaging materials, and strive to realize the reduction of packaging

④. Strengthen the recycling and treatment of packaging waste, which mainly includes directly reusable packaging, repairable packaging, renewable waste, degradable waste, waste that can only be landfilled and incinerated, etc

(3) green packaging design should reflect the design principle of "people-oriented"

the principle of humanized design can be summarized as "people-oriented", and the design thinking is based on the human axis in the design. "People oriented" refers not only to individual people, but also to the whole people, that is, social people, environmental people, and macro people

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